US Institute of Peace, Washington, 6-8 November 2018
Diana Laurillard, Professor of Learning with Digital Technology, UCL, Co-Investigator - Future Education, RELIEF
Dr Eileen Kennedy, Senior Research Associate, UCL - Future Education, RELIEF
The mEducation Alliance is a group of international development organisations, such as the British Council, DFID, IDRC, USAID, UNICEF, FIT-ED, World Bank, and many others. It is “committed to reducing barriers to access appropriate, scalable, and low-cost mobile technologies to help improve learning outcomes in formal and non-formal education across all levels, especially in low-resource and developing country contexts”.
The Symposium focused on teachers and community educators in Low-Resource Environments, and set out to address ‘how technology can provide greater support for their professional development, motivation, networking, and delivery of instruction in traditional and non-traditional educational settings’.
Last year’s Symposium was on “learning@scale”, where we reported on our study of this for the global South. It sparked discussion of one of our proposals: to use digital learning for “scaling up co-design of innovation and knowledge building for teachers”.
By January 2018, FIT-ED, IDRC, and USAID had organised a meeting of international development agencies to discuss a ‘[Teacher Professional Development] TPD@Scale Coalition’ in Hong Kong, so this year’s Symposium set out to build on that momentum.
The Symposium participants came from many of the countries in the global South, with especially challenging environments. Some teachers here work with populations who are migrating due to conflict or climate, or in remote and rural locations with traditionally low levels of resource. They often have little training. Technology infrastructure is usually very limited. But participants at this Symposium were reporting on new ways of tackling these problems, using technology to support local organisation solutions, for example:
ICEFIL provides a collaborative sharing platform to members to deliver innovative products and services across countries, to scale up innovation. They ask “How well can different African countries align to make accreditation affordable?”;
World Learning uses Sabaq in Pakistan to provide tutoring videos alongside teacher training support, contextualised to the locality, funded by DFID, and running in local centres and schools. Families pay a very low fee, to encourage commitment. Centres collect and share data on performance;
The Open University provides a YouTube channel for TESS-India, to provide personalised professional learning using tablets and OERs, with organised contact classes in local colleges, working in partnership with State structures, and integrated into a BEd degree programme.
and digital approaches to learning in challenging contexts:
Vodaphone’s ‘Instant Classroom’ provides charged tablets in a box, for classrooms without electricity, with UNHCR, for refugees in Kenya, Tanzania and DRC.
The Ideas Box is a mobile “pop up” multimedia center and learning hub that provides educational and cultural resources to communities in need, including refugees and displaced persons in camps around the globe, and underserved communities in developed countries.
Koombook is a mobile digital library, which recharges via a solar panel and works without internet connection. Its resources are curated locally, or created by teachers.
The Open University uses 360mobilevr (360-degree video recording and smartphone-driven mobile VR viewing) to improve the quality of teaching practice, pedagogic understanding, and engagement with professional development, in remote locations.
There were many other examples reported over the three days.
What we learned, was that discussions around teacher professional development include universal themes, whether we speak about the global South or North:
teachers lack time to innovate and explore new approaches
teacher professional development is only slowly moving away from top-down provision, and towards co-design and collaborative approaches
many teachers are ready to embrace digital methods, and have acquired informal digital skills, but are critical of the tools and resources being offered to them
digital learning resources in general are didactic, non-adaptive, non-customisable, and there is still a predominance of multiple choice instead of constructivist interactions for learning
digital solutions need to be systemic to fulfil their potential – engaging all the local stakeholders in owning the new approaches: teachers, and education leaders and policymakers, and families as well
digital tools and resources must be contextualised to the locality to be useful, but most provision is generic and unadaptable by the teachers
education leaders and policymakers are neither skilled nor knowledgeable about optimising the range of digital technologies in any educational context.
The themes peculiar to the global South are more likely to relate to technology access, gender and demographic discrimination. The challenges to innovation of languages, pedagogy, assessment and accreditation are universal. Of course, the discriminate use of digital technologies can ameliorate all of these.
The passion for change is clear. There is an increasing recognition that teachers themselves have a lot to contribute to the development of digital education: they are not necessarily opposed to change; they are now more interested in creativity and collaboration through digital means; they are beginning to be trusted to collaborate and be the owners of their own development and innovation.
This was the theme of our own presentation at this year’s Symposium on “TPD@Scale: A ‘local inclusion’ model for education without infrastructure”. The contrast is with the now discredited top-down ‘cascade’ model. For our work in the RELIEF Centre, on the Future Education theme, we are exploring an alternative model we call ‘local inclusion’. The MOOCs we are building, with our partners and contributors in Lebanon, will reflect their needs, and share their methods and successes.
The MOOC is a social environment, where teachers and community members collaborate and contribute their own solutions. We can then curate the best case studies, and recruit the enthusiastic alumni, to enrich and support the next run of the MOOC. Gradually we hope this iterative approach will become localised to the needs of all participants, wherever they are, and thereby sustainable in the long run.
The TPD@Scale Coalition, supported by the IRDC, DFID and FIT-Ed, now has the forward momentum to consider developing all these ideas from the conference – learning from the local solutions that use digital to go beyond the classroom to state or country level, and from the global solutions that use MOOCs to go beyond country level to find the common themes that bind us all together in ‘using technology to scale support for teachers and community educators in low-resource environments’.